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JLPT N2 Grammar points all in one

に伴ってused to express the idea of something happening concurrently or in association with something else.
It indicates that one action or event accompanies or is caused by another action or event.

“Urbanization progressed with economic development.”

“Many companies changed with the implementation of the new policy.”

“Traffic congestion worsened with the increase in population.”
とともにis used to indicate that two events or actions occur simultaneously or together.
It often implies a close relationship or correlation between the two.

“As I’ve aged, my physical strength has declined.”

“With success comes new challenges.”

“As autumn deepens, the temperature has been dropping.”
次第で“depending on” or “according to.”

Translation: “We’ll decide whether to have a picnic depending on the weather.”

Translates to “The results of the exams are determined by how you spend your summer vacation.”
次第ではa stronger degree of contingency or possibility.

Example: 結果次第ではプロジェクトが延期されるかもしれません。
Translation: “Depending on the results, the project might be postponed.”
に応じてindicates that something varies or changes according to a particular condition, circumstance, or situation.

(Yosan ni ōjite purojekuto no kibo o kettei shimasu.)
“We will determine the scale of the project according to the budget.”

(Shikaku ni ōjite kyūyo ga kimarimasu.)
“Salary is determined according to qualifications.”

(Juyō ni ōjite seisanryō o chōsei shimasu.)
“We adjust the production volume according to demand.”

(Ibento no shurui ni ōjite tekisetsu na fukusō o erande kudasai.)
“Please choose appropriate attire depending on the type of event.”

(Kenkō jōtai ni ōjita shokuseikatsu o kokorogakeru.)
Make an effort to maintain a diet according to your health condition.

おかけ (okage)
おかけ and おかげで are expressions of gratitude, but おかけ is more humble and focuses on the assistance received, while おかげで emphasizes the positive outcome or result directly attributable to someone’s help.

おかけ is a humble expression used to show gratitude or acknowledgment towards someone for their actions or help.
It’s often used in situations where someone’s help or action has resulted in a positive outcome or benefit for the speaker.

Example: おかげさまで、試験に合格できました。
(Okagesama de, shiken ni goukaku dekimashita.)
“Thanks to your help, I was able to pass the exam.”

おかげで (okage de):

おかげで also expresses gratitude or acknowledgment, but it emphasizes the result or consequence of someone’s actions or help.
It’s used to attribute a positive outcome directly to someone’s assistance or effort.

Example: おかげで、無事に旅行が楽しめました。
(Okage de, buji ni ryokou ga tanoshimemashita.)
“Thanks to you, I was able to enjoy the trip safely.”
せい (sei)
both せい (sei) and せいで (seide) are used to express the cause or reason for a situation, but せい (sei) is a noun, while せいで (seide) is a conjunction followed by a verb or sentence.

せい (sei):
せい (sei) is a noun that means “cause” or “reason.”
It is often used to attribute the cause of a situation or outcome.

Example: 彼の失敗のせいで、プロジェクトが遅れた。
(Kare no shippai no sei de, purojekuto ga okureta.)
– “Because of his mistake, the project was delayed.”

せいで (seide):
せいで (seide) is a conjunction that means “because of” or “due to.”
It is used to express the cause or reason for a situation or outcome, similar to せい (sei), but it is followed by a verb or sentence.

Example: 雨のせいで、ピクニックが中止になった。
(Ame no sei de, pikunikku ga chuushi ni natta.)
– “Because of the rain, the picnic was canceled.”
によって (ni yotte)

により (ni yori)
によって and により are effectively the same, but により is somewhat more formal than によって

によって (ni yotte):
によって (ni yotte) is a prepositional phrase that means “by” or “due to.
It is used to indicate the agent or means by which an action is performed or the cause of a situation.

Example: 交通事故によって、交通が混乱しています。
(Koutsuu jiko ni yotte, koutsuu ga konran shiteimasu.)
– “Due to a traffic accident, traffic is congested.”

により (ni yori):
により (ni yori) is a formal version of によって (ni yotte) and has the same meaning.
It is used in more formal or written contexts.

Example: この法律により、新しい規制が導入されました。
(Kono houritsu ni yori, atarashii kisei ga dounyuu sare mashita.)
– “By this law, new regulations have been introduced.”

There’s no worry of a tsunami because of the earthquake this time.

Teachers check if students understand by (means of) tests.
につきThe grammar point “につき” (ni tsuki) is used to express conditions, restrictions, or provisions related to a particular subject or circumstance. It indicates the basis or condition under which something applies or occurs. Here’s how it works:

Meaning: “Regarding” or “Concerning” – It implies a condition or situation that is associated with the subject or topic mentioned.
Typically used in formal or written language to denote rules, regulations, or conditions.
Often followed by nouns, pronouns, or phrases indicating the subject or topic to which the condition applies.

(Kaiten jikan ni tsuki, gogo ni-ji made ni go-raiten kudasai.)
– “Regarding opening hours, please come by 2 p.m.”

(Touten niwa chūshajō ga gozaimasen node, kōkyō kōtsū kikan o goriyō ni tsukimasu yō onegai mōshiagemasu.)
– “As we do not have parking facilities at this store, we kindly ask that you use public transportation.”

Both expressions are used to provide reasons or explanations, but “ものだから” often implies a natural or expected reason, while “もので” suggests a reason that is beyond control or unavoidable.
“ものだから” is used when the speaker wants to convey that a situation is natural or expected based on the circumstances.
“もので” is used when the reason or cause is something beyond the speaker’s control or influence.
Both expressions

ものだから (mono dakara)
: This expression is used to give a reason or explanation for a situation. It implies that something is expected or natural based on the preceding statement or situation.
The first part of the sentence typically describes a situation or state. “から” provides the reason or explanation.

(Ame ga futteimasu kara, gaishutsu o hikaete kudasai.)
– “It’s raining, so please refrain from going out.”

もので (mono de)
Meaning: This expression is used to give a reason or cause for something. It often implies that the reason is beyond control or unavoidable.
Similar to “ものだから”, the first part describes a situation or state. “で” provides the reason or cause.

(Chikoku shite shimatta mono de, mōshiwake gozaimasen.)
– “I’m sorry for being late; it was beyond my control.”

あまり“あまり” is an adverb that expresses the idea of “not much” or “not very”. It is used to indicate a small degree or quantity of something.

When used with a negative verb, it means “not much” or “not very”.
When used with a positive verb, it implies “too much” or “excessive”.

(Kare no ryōri wa amari oishikunakatta desu.)
– “His cooking wasn’t very delicious.”

(Kanojo wa amari nenai de, maiban osoku made benkyō shiteimasu.)
– “She doesn’t sleep much and studies until late every night.”

(Kono hon wa amari takakunai desu.)
– “This book isn’t very expensive.”

Meaning: “だけのことはある” is a Japanese expression used to acknowledge or emphasize that something is as expected or deserved, often indicating satisfaction or approval.

It is used to acknowledge that the result or outcome is in line with expectations based on the qualities or actions of someone or something.
It implies that the result is commensurate with the effort, skill, or reputation of the subject.

[Noun/Verb/Adjective] + だけのことはある

(Kanojo no utsukushii utagoe, subarashii dake no koto wa aru.)
– “Her beautiful singing voice is truly remarkable.”

(Kare wa seijitsu na hito da. Sono kōdō wa shinrai dekiru dake no koto wa aru.)
– “He is a sincere person. His actions are trustworthy, as expected.”

(Kono resutoran no hyōban wa takai. Ryōri no kuoritī ga takai dake no koto wa aru.)
– “This restaurant has a good reputation. The quality of the food is excellent, as expected.”

Both “だけに” and “だけあって” express the idea of “as one would expect” or “precisely because.” They are used to emphasize that something happened or turned out in a certain way due to the inherent nature of a particular situation or person.
“だけに” is used when the result is logical or natural given the circumstances.
“だけあって” is used when the result is consistent with expectations based on a person’s reputation, status, or some known quality.

For example:
(As one would expect from a genius, he quickly solved the problem.)

(As expected from her reputation as a great cook, everyone was very satisfied at the party.)
となったら” “となれば”are conditional expressions in Japanese that are used to indicate a specific condition or situation and its potential consequences or implications. They are often translated into English as “if it comes to” or “if it turns out that.”

となったら (to nattara):
Indicates a specific condition or situation and suggests the potential consequences or actions associated with it. Used to discuss hypothetical or future situations and their implications.

(If tomorrow’s meeting is canceled, we’ll need to change our plans.)

となれば (to nareba):
Indicates a specific condition or situation and considers its potential outcomes or implications.
Often used to discuss possibilities or options based on a given condition.

(If he can’t attend, we’ll need to do his work on his behalf.)
だけは“だけは” (dake wa) is a Japanese expression that emphasizes a strong contrast or exception in a statement. It is often translated into English as “at least” or “only.”

Emphasizing Exception or Requirement:
Indicates a specific aspect or condition that must be met, emphasizing it as an exception or minimum requirement. Used to express strong determination, insistence, or emphasis on a particular point.

(No matter what anyone says about her, I believe in her. She’s the one person I can trust, at least.)

Emphasizing Unwavering Belief or Conviction:
Highlights a particular belief, conviction, or expectation that remains unchanged or unwavering.
Used to stress the importance of a specific aspect or to indicate a strong commitment to a particular principle or belief.

(While my opinions may change, one thing that won’t change is my commitment to fight for justice, at least.)
“から言うと” (kara iu to)Used to introduce a statement based on a particular standpoint, perspective, or reasoning. It is often translated into English as “from the standpoint of,” “speaking from,” or “considering that.”

Introducing a Statement Based on a Particular Standpoint:
Indicates that the following statement is made from a specific standpoint, perspective, or reasoning.
Used to provide context, background, or justification for the subsequent statement.

(From an economic standpoint, the proposal is rational.)

Offering an Opinion or Assessment Based on a Certain Point of View:
Introduces an opinion, assessment, or conclusion based on a particular perspective or reasoning.
Used to express one’s viewpoint or judgment, considering relevant factors or criteria.

(From an ethical standpoint, his behavior is problematic.)

Providing a Contextual Framework for Discussion or Analysis:
Establishes a contextual framework for discussion, analysis, or evaluation of a topic or situation.
Helps to clarify the basis on which subsequent statements or actions are made.

新しい政策を導入する場合、その効果を正確に評価するためには、多面的な観点から言うと慎重な検討が必要です。 (When introducing new policies, careful consideration from various perspectives is necessary to accurately evaluate their effects.)
からこそused to emphasize that a particular outcome or situation is precisely because of the preceding reason or condition. It often translates to “precisely because,” “exactly due to,” or “for this very reason” in English.

Emphasizing Cause and Effect:
Indicates that a specific outcome or situation is directly caused by the preceding reason or condition.
Highlights the connection between the reason and the result, emphasizing the significance of the relationship.

(It can be said that she succeeded precisely because her efforts bore fruit.)

Stressing Importance or Necessity:
Emphasizes the importance or necessity of a particular reason or condition in achieving a desired outcome.

(Precisely because maintaining a healthy diet is important, one should strive for a balanced diet.)

Asserting Reasoning or Justification:
Asserts the reasoning or justification behind a statement or action by highlighting the connection to a specific reason or condition.

(His proposal hits the mark. That’s precisely because of his extensive experience and knowledge.)
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