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JLPT N2 Grammar points all in one

ばかりか (bakari ka)is used to express contrast or addition, emphasizing the surprising or remarkable nature of the additional information. “Not only… but also,” “not just… but even,” or “not merely… but also.

It’s typically used to emphasize an unexpected or remarkable addition after stating one aspect of the situation.

“Not only is that job incredibly tiring, but the salary is also low.”

“Not only do I know him, but I’m also in a relationship with him.”

ばかりでなくis a grammatical structure used to indicate that something is not limited to just one aspect but also includes another. It’s often translated as “not only… but also” or “not just… but also” in English.

“Mount Fuji is not only the tallest mountain in Japan but also beautiful.”
上に” (ue ni)used to indicate an additional action or circumstance that occurs on top of another action or situation. It’s often translated as “on top of” or “in addition to” in English.

Example: 寝坊した上に財布を家に忘れた。
Meaning: “Not only overslept but also forgot my wallet at home.”

Here, not only can you see fireworks well, but it’s also not very crowded.
POINT!〜ばかりか (bakari ka):
Indicates not only the main point but also an additional surprising or unexpected point.
Often followed by another surprising or contrasting clause.
Emphasizes the unexpectedness or contrast of the additional point.

~上(に) (~ue ni):
Indicates an additional situation or circumstance that further enhances or intensifies the main point.
Can be used to indicate an additional benefit, condition, or circumstance.
をもとにis used to indicate the basis or foundation upon which something is done or created.

(Hiragana was created based on kanji.)

(This idea is based on what you said.)
をもとにして“をもとにして” is a slightly more formal version, which is followed by a verb phrase or clause.

(This novel is fiction based on a true story.)
にもとづいて “に基づいて”is a Japanese grammar construction used to indicate that something is based on or founded upon something else. It’s often translated as “based on” or “according to” in English.

(This report is based on the latest research.)

(This plan was created based on the opinions of the citizens.)

(This law is based on the constitution.)
に基づいて(ni motozuite), which means “based on” or “according to” in English.

Dispose of correctly based on the law.

Announce opinions based on experimental results.

Education based on parents’ ideas is conducted.
に沿って” (ni sotte)means “along” or “following” in English. It indicates movement or progression along a certain path, direction, or guideline.

Translation: Walk along the road.

Translation: Take a walk along the river.

Stations are scheduled to be built along the railway line.

Act in accordance with the rules.
のもとで” (no moto de) indicates the idea of “based on” or “under the guidance of” in English. They are used to describe the foundation, basis, or authority upon which something is done or decided.

Translation: He learned music under the guidance of his father.

Translation: The meeting proceeded under the new policy.

(This project is being carried out under the guidance of the new design.)
“のもとに” (no moto ni)“のもとで” (no moto de) and “のもとに” (no moto ni) both indicate the idea of “based on” or “under the guidance of” in English

Translation: This plan was formulated based on the opinions of experts.

(They reached an agreement based on the new law.)
に関して” (ni kanshite)Used to indicate “regarding,” “concerning,” or “in relation to” in English. It is often used to introduce the topic or subject of discussion

I raised objections regarding his proposal.

Do you have any questions concerning this report?

We are conducting a detailed investigation into the matter.

Regarding this matter, we should respect his opinion.

(Chikyū ondanka ni kansuru chōsa o okonau.)
“We will conduct an investigation about global warming.”

(Konkai no ken ni kanshite no kimi no iken o kikitai.)
I want to hear your opinion about this matter.
をめぐって” (wo megutte)

“をめぐり” (wo meguri)
used to indicate the idea of “surrounding” or “centering around” something. They are often used to describe the context or circumstances in which something occurs.

Translation: Many discussions took place surrounding their marriage.

Translation: Various opinions have been expressed regarding this issue.

Translation: Citizens are concerned about the current political situation.

Translation: International cooperation surrounding environmental protection is important.
にかけてはis a Japanese grammar expression used to indicate a specific area or aspect in which someone or something excels or performs well compared to others. It’s often used to acknowledge someone’s strengths, abilities, or achievements in a particular field or context.

Translation: When it comes to speed, he doesn’t lose to anyone.

Translation: When it comes to tactics, this team is exceptionally good.

Translation: When it comes to studying, she works diligently.

Translation: When it comes to service, that shop has a good reputation.
に対して” (ni taishite)is a Japanese grammar expression used to indicate the target or recipient of an action or the subject of someone’s feelings, opinions, or attitudes. It often translates to “toward,” “against,” “in relation to,” or “regarding” in English.

Translation: He is kind to his friends.

Translation: This policy takes an active approach toward environmental protection.

Translation: She is sensitive to criticism.

Translation: The team won against the strong school.
“にこたえて”“in response to” or “in answer to.” It is used to describe actions or behaviors taken in reaction to something. Let’s look at some examples to understand its usage:

Translation: He responded to the request by adding new features.

Translation: The company developed new products to meet customer needs.

Translation: In response to the citizens’ requests, new playground equipment was installed in the park.

Translation: The children thought of answers in response to the teacher’s questions.

“We will re-broadcast the drama in response to the viewers’ requests.”

“We will do our best to produce results that meet expectations.”

“I want to respond to the feelings of everyone who supports me.”
につれてused to express a correlation or change that occurs in conjunction with another action or event. It indicates that one thing happens as another thing changes or progresses. Here are the English translations of the provided sentences:

“As the number of meetings increased, I became more and more attracted.”

“As my appetite decreased, my weight dropped.”

“As time passed, the tension increased.”
にしたがって“にしたがって” is similar to “につれて” and is used to indicate that one thing happens in accordance with or following another thing. It expresses a relationship of correspondence or progression between two actions or events.

“Tension increased as time passed.”

“Confidence grew along with the improvement in grades.”

“It becomes easier to catch a cold as the seasons change.”
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